KONTRIBUSI BIAYA PENYEHATAN LINGKUNGAN RUMAH SAKIT
PADA BIAYA PASIEN RAWAT INAP RUMAH SAKIT UMUM
DI DAERAH ISTIMEWA YOGYAKARTA
Mohamad Mirza Fauzie, Darmanto, M. Arifai
In-patient care is one form of services delivered by a hospital. In order to decide the tariff of the care, some considerations are needed such as the type and quality of the services, competitors’ tariffs, unit cost for each service, the expected profit, and charitable mission of the hospital. To date, sanitation is scarcely considered as one of the in-patient cost components, whereas the outputs of sanitation activities definitely and actually be used in day-to-day care delivery. The study conducted a cross sectional design on seven purposively sampled hospital which each has Sanitation Unit and a minimum of 100 beds. The collected data were unit cost from following variables: water supplying, liquid waste processing, and solid medical waste management; as well as the data of in-patient utilization, i.e. length of stay and total number of patient. The results showed that the contribution of hospital sanitation cost on in-patient tariff components vary between 7,95% and 20,73%, and the corresponding cost that should be paid by each patient per care-day ranged from Rp. 1.338,- to Rp. 5.933,-. It can be concluded that the higher the hospital sanitation cost the higher its contribution to in-patient care costs.
Kata Kunci : kontribusi, biaya penyehatan lingkungan rumah sakit, biaya rawat inap
PENGARUH PENCAHAYAAN BUATAN TERHADAP GEJALA KELELAHAN MATA SUBYEKTIF DI PONDOK PESANTREN AL-QODIR
DUSUN TANJUNG DESA WUKIRSARI KECAMATAN CANGKRINGAN
Andi Setiawan, Yamtana, Sri Puji Ganefati
One objectives of health development is to improve the ability of healthy life for everyone in order to reach their optimal health degree. There are some physical factors that influence public health, e.g. inadequate illumination. Inappropriate illumination can disturb the health of eyes. The goal of the study was to understand the appropriate level of artificial illumination used for reading activities in Al-Qodir Moslem Boarding School at Tanjung Village, Wukirsari, Cang-kringan, Sleman. The study was an experiment with ’post-test only design’. The study subjects were high school level students. Meanwhile, the treatments were 100, 200 and 300 lux artificial illumination. The subjective eyes fatigue symptoms were observed by using questionnaire and then classified as: high, medium, and low. For each illumination treatment, the procentage of the symptom classifications are as follows: 100 lux: high 53,3%, medium 33,3%, low 13,4%; 200 lux: high 13,5%, medium 20,0%, low 66,5%; and 300 lux: high 40,0%, medium 40,0%, low 20,0%. Based on the results, it was concluded that the appropriate illumination intensity for the boarding school was 200 lux, because this treatment was the highest procentage in the low ’category’. Fur-thermore, it was advised for school managerial board to provide the requisite illumination by installing 40 watt flourescent lamps or providing 14 watt table lamps; and to avoid excessive glare, the installation should carefully consider-ing the appropriate distance between the lamps and reading areas.
Kata Kunci : pencahayaan buatan, kelelahan mata subyektif
SURVEI RUMAH SEHAT DI KOTA YOGYAKARTA, TAHUN 2008
Sigid Sudaryanto, Siti Hani Istiqomah, Indah Werdiningsih
House is one of primary needs for people. As a shelter, a house must fulfill four conditions, i.e. physiological and psychological aspects, and disease and accident prevention. The survey was conducted to collect data and information on the conditon of houses in Yogyakarta City by observing house components, sanitation facilities and healthy behaviours, and was held in November and December 2008. The sample were 1050 households in 11 community health center’s serving areas. In general, the majority of households: are categorized as healthy and quite healthy; have adequate ventilation, smoke emition hole, and natural lighting; have adequate clean water, and excreta disposal facilities; and have adequate behaviours related to prevention of diarrhea and acute respiratory infection. The survey also showed descriptively that the condition of houses corresponded with the incident of both diseases
Kata Kunci : rumah sehat, penyediaan sarana air bersih, pembuangan tinja, ventilasi, pencahayaan
’GEMAH RIPAH’, BANK SAMPAH BERBASIS MASYARAKAT
DI PEDUKUHAN BADEGAN, BANTUL, PROVINSI DAERAH ISTIMEWA YOGYAKARTA
Bambang Suwerda, Yamtana
Waste still a great concern of people and needs comprehensive solution. According to Act No.18/2008 about Waste Management, self-sorting on wastes yielded by households are emphasized and endorsed. In order to solve the waste problems in Badegan Village, the concept of Waste Bank are introduced, of which people do the process of sorting, deposit the waste to the bank, and receipt some money which were directly put into their savings. Some steps were conducted to develop the program, i.e. socializing the program to different groups of community, setting-up the management board, coordinating with Badegan environmental health workshop and third-parties, training of officers, and conducting ongoing monitoring and evaluation. On 5th June 2008, ’Gemah Ripah’ Waste Bank was founded. In the first seven months it succesfully gain-ed 87 active members. It is hoped that the Bank is becoming a model for waste management in Bantul Regency, and in the future the program would be accepted, copied and implemented in other areas.
Kata Kunci : bank sampah, pengelolaan sampah, pemberdayaan masyarakat
PERBEDAAN TINGKAT PENGETAHUAN, SIKAP DAN PERILAKU HIDUP BERSIH DAN SEHAT (PHBS) IBU DENGAN KEJADIAN DIARE PADA BALITA DI WILAYAH KERJA PUSKESMAS SEYEGAN, SLEMAN
Hastomo, Sri Muryani, Haryono
As an environmental based disease, diarrhea frequently attacks infant and under five children. The total diarrhea incidences troughout 2008 in Seyegan Community Health Centre were more than 800 cases. The study was to understood the correlation between mothers’ level of knowledge, attitude and practice on healthy and clean behaviours (PHBS) with diarrhea incidence of their underfive children. The study was an observational one with case control design. The case group consisted of 46 children who were diagnosed of diarrhea in the last two months, meanwhile the control group comprised with other 46 undiagnosed children. A valid and reliable piloted questionnaire and check-list were used to measure the predictor factors. The study showed that in the control group, the level of knowledge, attitude and practice on PHBS were significantly higher than those in case group.
Kata Kunci : PHBS, diare
MAT DARI SERBUK DAUN ZODIA (Evodia suaviolens) SEBAGAI PENGENDALI NYAMUK Aedes aegypti
Yulianto Sri Wahyu Nugroho, Purwanto, Agus Kharmayana Rubaya
Indonesia is a tropical country rich with natural resources which can be used in supporting environmental health efforts. One of the plants which characterized as mosquito repellent is Zodia, of which mat formed mosquito essence can be made. The advantages of using such mat are lowering the risk of being bite by mosquito vectors and is has no side effect. The study was aimed to understand the ability of Zodia leaves powder mat in fainting and killing Aedes aegypti mosquitos. The study was an experiment with post-test only with control group design. The data was statistically analyzed by using Probit analysis from Compustat software and One-way Anova and LSD tests from SPSS software on 95% significance level. The results showed that for the three various powder weight (i.e. 1, 2, and 3 gr) the LD50 were 1,18; 0,85, and 0,70 respectively; whereas the KT50 were 14’ 19,2”; 7’ 40,8”, and 5’ 21”, respectively. Further tests also showed that the mosquito mortality amongst the treatments were statistically different, and 3 gram Zodia’s powder was the most effective. It was advised that advanced research should be conducted to study the durability of the mat, as well as it’s killing ability against other mosquito vector species.
Kata Kunci : Evodia suaviolens, Aedes aegypti, knock-down time, lethal dose
PERBEDAAN DUA JENIS HANDSCRUB DALAM MENURUNKAN ANGKA KUMAN TANGAN PERAWAT RUANG PEDIATRIC INTENSIVE CARE UNIT (PICU) RSUP DR. SARDJITO YOGYAKARTA
Yuka Lathifa Dinar, Narto, Bambang Suwerda
The failure to conduct hands’ hygiene and health of medical personnels are considered and had been recognised as one of the main factors of nosocomial infection in health service facilities. The study was aimed to understand the difference ability in decreasing hand bacteria number between two types of handscrub, ie. liquid soap and glycerine alcohol. The participants in this study were 28 sampled nurses from pedriatic intensice care unit of Dr Sardjito General Hospital. They were then separated into two treatment groups. The experiment used pre-test post-test design. The hand bacteria were sampled, managed and examined by following the standard procedure. The results showed that liquid soap could reduce 69,61% of the bacteria, meanwhile glycerine alcohol was 62,09%. The further statistical t test proved that the difference was significant (p-value 0,037). It is advised that liquid soap is best used for rooms that need sterile condition and do not produce proteins, fatty acids and phospate compounds which can reduce its effectiveness.
Kata Kunci : handscrub, sabun cair, alkohol gliserin, angka kuman tangan