Selasa, 15 Desember 2009
PADA BIAYA PASIEN RAWAT INAP RUMAH SAKIT UMUM
DI DAERAH ISTIMEWA YOGYAKARTA
Mohamad Mirza Fauzie, Darmanto, M. Arifai
In-patient care is one form of services delivered by a hospital. In order to decide the tariff of the care, some considerations are needed such as the type and quality of the services, competitors’ tariffs, unit cost for each service, the expected profit, and charitable mission of the hospital. To date, sanitation is scarcely considered as one of the in-patient cost components, whereas the outputs of sanitation activities definitely and actually be used in day-to-day care delivery. The study conducted a cross sectional design on seven purposively sampled hospital which each has Sanitation Unit and a minimum of 100 beds. The collected data were unit cost from following variables: water supplying, liquid waste processing, and solid medical waste management; as well as the data of in-patient utilization, i.e. length of stay and total number of patient. The results showed that the contribution of hospital sanitation cost on in-patient tariff components vary between 7,95% and 20,73%, and the corresponding cost that should be paid by each patient per care-day ranged from Rp. 1.338,- to Rp. 5.933,-. It can be concluded that the higher the hospital sanitation cost the higher its contribution to in-patient care costs.
Kata Kunci : kontribusi, biaya penyehatan lingkungan rumah sakit, biaya rawat inap
PENGARUH PENCAHAYAAN BUATAN TERHADAP GEJALA KELELAHAN MATA SUBYEKTIF DI PONDOK PESANTREN AL-QODIR
DUSUN TANJUNG DESA WUKIRSARI KECAMATAN CANGKRINGAN
Andi Setiawan, Yamtana, Sri Puji Ganefati
One objectives of health development is to improve the ability of healthy life for everyone in order to reach their optimal health degree. There are some physical factors that influence public health, e.g. inadequate illumination. Inappropriate illumination can disturb the health of eyes. The goal of the study was to understand the appropriate level of artificial illumination used for reading activities in Al-Qodir Moslem Boarding School at Tanjung Village, Wukirsari, Cang-kringan, Sleman. The study was an experiment with ’post-test only design’. The study subjects were high school level students. Meanwhile, the treatments were 100, 200 and 300 lux artificial illumination. The subjective eyes fatigue symptoms were observed by using questionnaire and then classified as: high, medium, and low. For each illumination treatment, the procentage of the symptom classifications are as follows: 100 lux: high 53,3%, medium 33,3%, low 13,4%; 200 lux: high 13,5%, medium 20,0%, low 66,5%; and 300 lux: high 40,0%, medium 40,0%, low 20,0%. Based on the results, it was concluded that the appropriate illumination intensity for the boarding school was 200 lux, because this treatment was the highest procentage in the low ’category’. Fur-thermore, it was advised for school managerial board to provide the requisite illumination by installing 40 watt flourescent lamps or providing 14 watt table lamps; and to avoid excessive glare, the installation should carefully consider-ing the appropriate distance between the lamps and reading areas.
Kata Kunci : pencahayaan buatan, kelelahan mata subyektif
SURVEI RUMAH SEHAT DI KOTA YOGYAKARTA, TAHUN 2008
Sigid Sudaryanto, Siti Hani Istiqomah, Indah Werdiningsih
House is one of primary needs for people. As a shelter, a house must fulfill four conditions, i.e. physiological and psychological aspects, and disease and accident prevention. The survey was conducted to collect data and information on the conditon of houses in Yogyakarta City by observing house components, sanitation facilities and healthy behaviours, and was held in November and December 2008. The sample were 1050 households in 11 community health center’s serving areas. In general, the majority of households: are categorized as healthy and quite healthy; have adequate ventilation, smoke emition hole, and natural lighting; have adequate clean water, and excreta disposal facilities; and have adequate behaviours related to prevention of diarrhea and acute respiratory infection. The survey also showed descriptively that the condition of houses corresponded with the incident of both diseases
Kata Kunci : rumah sehat, penyediaan sarana air bersih, pembuangan tinja, ventilasi, pencahayaan
’GEMAH RIPAH’, BANK SAMPAH BERBASIS MASYARAKAT
DI PEDUKUHAN BADEGAN, BANTUL, PROVINSI DAERAH ISTIMEWA YOGYAKARTA
Bambang Suwerda, Yamtana
Waste still a great concern of people and needs comprehensive solution. According to Act No.18/2008 about Waste Management, self-sorting on wastes yielded by households are emphasized and endorsed. In order to solve the waste problems in Badegan Village, the concept of Waste Bank are introduced, of which people do the process of sorting, deposit the waste to the bank, and receipt some money which were directly put into their savings. Some steps were conducted to develop the program, i.e. socializing the program to different groups of community, setting-up the management board, coordinating with Badegan environmental health workshop and third-parties, training of officers, and conducting ongoing monitoring and evaluation. On 5th June 2008, ’Gemah Ripah’ Waste Bank was founded. In the first seven months it succesfully gain-ed 87 active members. It is hoped that the Bank is becoming a model for waste management in Bantul Regency, and in the future the program would be accepted, copied and implemented in other areas.
Kata Kunci : bank sampah, pengelolaan sampah, pemberdayaan masyarakat
PERBEDAAN TINGKAT PENGETAHUAN, SIKAP DAN PERILAKU HIDUP BERSIH DAN SEHAT (PHBS) IBU DENGAN KEJADIAN DIARE PADA BALITA DI WILAYAH KERJA PUSKESMAS SEYEGAN, SLEMAN
Hastomo, Sri Muryani, Haryono
As an environmental based disease, diarrhea frequently attacks infant and under five children. The total diarrhea incidences troughout 2008 in Seyegan Community Health Centre were more than 800 cases. The study was to understood the correlation between mothers’ level of knowledge, attitude and practice on healthy and clean behaviours (PHBS) with diarrhea incidence of their underfive children. The study was an observational one with case control design. The case group consisted of 46 children who were diagnosed of diarrhea in the last two months, meanwhile the control group comprised with other 46 undiagnosed children. A valid and reliable piloted questionnaire and check-list were used to measure the predictor factors. The study showed that in the control group, the level of knowledge, attitude and practice on PHBS were significantly higher than those in case group.
Kata Kunci : PHBS, diare
MAT DARI SERBUK DAUN ZODIA (Evodia suaviolens) SEBAGAI PENGENDALI NYAMUK Aedes aegypti
Yulianto Sri Wahyu Nugroho, Purwanto, Agus Kharmayana Rubaya
Indonesia is a tropical country rich with natural resources which can be used in supporting environmental health efforts. One of the plants which characterized as mosquito repellent is Zodia, of which mat formed mosquito essence can be made. The advantages of using such mat are lowering the risk of being bite by mosquito vectors and is has no side effect. The study was aimed to understand the ability of Zodia leaves powder mat in fainting and killing Aedes aegypti mosquitos. The study was an experiment with post-test only with control group design. The data was statistically analyzed by using Probit analysis from Compustat software and One-way Anova and LSD tests from SPSS software on 95% significance level. The results showed that for the three various powder weight (i.e. 1, 2, and 3 gr) the LD50 were 1,18; 0,85, and 0,70 respectively; whereas the KT50 were 14’ 19,2”; 7’ 40,8”, and 5’ 21”, respectively. Further tests also showed that the mosquito mortality amongst the treatments were statistically different, and 3 gram Zodia’s powder was the most effective. It was advised that advanced research should be conducted to study the durability of the mat, as well as it’s killing ability against other mosquito vector species.
Kata Kunci : Evodia suaviolens, Aedes aegypti, knock-down time, lethal dose
PERBEDAAN DUA JENIS HANDSCRUB DALAM MENURUNKAN ANGKA KUMAN TANGAN PERAWAT RUANG PEDIATRIC INTENSIVE CARE UNIT (PICU) RSUP DR. SARDJITO YOGYAKARTA
Yuka Lathifa Dinar, Narto, Bambang Suwerda
The failure to conduct hands’ hygiene and health of medical personnels are considered and had been recognised as one of the main factors of nosocomial infection in health service facilities. The study was aimed to understand the difference ability in decreasing hand bacteria number between two types of handscrub, ie. liquid soap and glycerine alcohol. The participants in this study were 28 sampled nurses from pedriatic intensice care unit of Dr Sardjito General Hospital. They were then separated into two treatment groups. The experiment used pre-test post-test design. The hand bacteria were sampled, managed and examined by following the standard procedure. The results showed that liquid soap could reduce 69,61% of the bacteria, meanwhile glycerine alcohol was 62,09%. The further statistical t test proved that the difference was significant (p-value 0,037). It is advised that liquid soap is best used for rooms that need sterile condition and do not produce proteins, fatty acids and phospate compounds which can reduce its effectiveness.
Kata Kunci : handscrub, sabun cair, alkohol gliserin, angka kuman tangan
Minggu, 01 Maret 2009
PENDAYAGUNAAN TENAGA PELOPOR MALARIA (PTM)
PADA DAERAH-DAERAH ENDEMIK MALARIA
DI PROPINSI SUMATERA BARAT
Muchsin Riviwanto, Aidil Onasis
The eradication and controlling activities on malaria mosquitos still only ad-dressing the vectors such as conducting house spraying, larviciding and ento-mologic survey. These efforts are ineffective because of lack of human factor. In sociological intervention, community involvement are needed to voluntarily help the malaria problem. Those people are called Tenaga Pelopor Malaria (TPM). The study was aimed to develop community empowerment model by forming and activating individuals in the community as TPM. The model is ex-pected to be implemented not only in research areas but also in other malaria endemic areas. The study employed quasi experiment with control group pre and post test design. The research took place at Mandeh Village in Pesisir Selatan Regency and Sijantang Village in Sawahlunto City. There were 10 TPM, each of them took care 10 households and conducting eight visitages in once a week frequency. From every visitage, the development of the house-holds were monitored. The study showed that the TPMs have been founded in West Sumatera Province as a model for other areas. In doing their activities, each TPM was equipped with pocket books and booklets as guidance Results of the FGD showed that in general, people were not fully aware about the characteristics of malaria as well as the related controlling methods. It can be concluded that the TPM intervention were significantly effective in increasing people’s knowledge and attitude (p<0.05).>0.05). The local Health Agency is advised to follow-up the program by monitoring dan controlling the TPM’s activities. It is suggested as well, that the local government pay attention by giving incentive in order to motivate the TPM to be more active.
Kata Kunci : malaria, pemberdayaan masyarakat, tenaga pelopor malaria
PEMANFAATAN PENGINDERAAN JAUH
DAN SISTEM INFORMASI GEOGRAFIS
UNTUK PEMETAAN DISTRIBUSI SPASIAL
PENYAKIT DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE (DBD)
Nur M. Farda, Sigit Heru Murti, Putri Rizka Nursari
Nowadays, the development of remote sensing method has capability for ex-tracting data of environmental factors which are influencing the exictence of breeding places of Aedes aegypti as vector mosquito of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF). The output of remote sensing is subsequently used as input of GIS (Geographical Information System) to analyze susceptibility areas of DHF. The aim of the research was to explore the advantage of remote sensing and GIS for area susceptibility mapping on this disease based on some parameters such as: land-use, population density, river, temporary waste disposal sites, and the characteristic of Aedes aegypti prerequisite condition. Scoring is the method used in this research to analyze those parameters. The results shows that extraction land-use from IKONOS image data produced 88 % of accuracy. Furthermore, the map produced from the method shows that 35.28 % (1207,68 ha) and 25,62 % (876,99 ha) area of Depok sub-district, in Sleman regency, DIY province, has medium and high susceptibility of DHF, respectively.
Kata Kunci : Penginderaan jauh, GIS, distribusi spasial, DBD
DOSIS EFEKTIF INOCULANT CAIR UNTUK MEMPERCEPAT
WAKTU PENGOMPOSAN SAMPAH ORGANIK
Sri Puji Ganefati, Iswanto, Suparjan
Organic waste is the biggest component (75%-80%) amongst domestic waste. The waste is potential to give negative impact on public health and environ-mental health. Further utilization of organic waste is the best way to produce organic fertilizer. However, the long duration needed for the composting process (up to 2-3 motnhs) found as major obstacle that makes people hesitate to apply this method, and therefore causing unsatisfied waste handling. One of the problem solution alternatives is to add activator (i.e. inoculant) which can accelerate the composting process. Survey held in Sukunan Village, Sleman Regency, on 4 May 2007 revealed that the addition of liquid inoculant into organic waste was able to shorten the composting time only for 2 weeks, or reduced 2-10 weeks from the normal time. However, the effective dose is has not known yet, so that it was important to conduct follow-up research to understand the most accelerating dose. The results showed that the average of composting time for each dose of the liquid inoculant were: 75 cc/lt, 11,22 days; 60 cc/lt, 13,11 days; 45 cc/lt,14,56 days; 30 cc/lt, 16,22 days; and 15 cc/t, 18,11 days. The time needed for 75cc/lt was found as the quickest and was supported by the statistical analysis using anova and t test (p-value <>.
Kata Kunci : sampah organik, kompos, inoculant cair
BIAYA DAN KUALITAS PENYEHATAN LINGKUNGAN
RUMAH SAKIT UMUM DI DAERAH ISTIMEWA YOGYAKARTA
Mohamad Mirza Fauzie, Darmanto, M. Arifai
A hospital is a public facility which has highly possibilities to get nosocomial in-fection and pollution of the surrounding environmental from its daily activities. In order to avoid and to decrease those kinds of risks, a hospital is necessary to carry out environmental health programs and those activities were based on the Ministry of Health’s decision Number 1204/ Menkes/SK/X/2004. This study has used analytic descriptive research using cross sectional design. The vari-ables which were studied compare between total cost of investment cost, operational cost, maintenance cost, and administration cost. In addition, the output quantity of activities was the amount of water which was produced (m3), the amount of waste water which was treated (m3), the amount of which was annihilated (kg), and the volume of room which was sterilized (m3), while the output quality consisted of quality of laboratorial diagnostic result based on the request from every sanitation installation which is inline with the parameter request. Furthermore, unit cost was the total cost that is divided by output qu-antity.To accomplish the quality of bacteriology in water supply is not as good as the quality of its chemistry and physics and also the quality of microbiology at waste water treatment. Otherwise, to handle the quality of microbiology is easier in technology and cheaper in cost side if comparing to handle the quality of chemistry and physics. The cost of fuel in destroying the solid medical waste becomes the highest cost so it is needed an efficient fuel of burner. To ac-complish the quality of sterilization result so standart operating procedure accomplishment becomes important. The average of actual unit cost for pro-cessing healthy water is Rp 854/m3, while for recycling waste water, proces-sing of solid medical wasted, and sterilization are Rp 9.341/m3, Rp 6.957/kg, and Rp 1.650/m3 respectively. The higher the unit cost for water supply the better the quality of microbiology and physics. In waste water treatment, the higher unit cost the better the quality of bacteriology and chemistry. Otherwise for sterilization, the less sterilized room volume the higher the unit cost.
Kata Kunci : biaya satuan, kualitas, penyehatan lingkungan rumah sakit
KEMAMPUAN TANAMAN MENSIANG (Scirpus grossus)
DALAM MENURUNKAN KADAR BOD DAN COD
LIMBAH RUMAH MAKAN
Yasril, Awalia Gusti
Liquid waste yielded from food materials of restaurant is counted as organic waste which can be degradated by microorganisms becoming volatile and un-pleasant odored compound. Therefore, further processing to decrease the BOD and COD concentration is needed, for example the application of Men-siang (Scirpus grossus) plants. The experiment study was a quasi one. The collected data was a primer ones which was gained from laboratory examina-tion on the sample of the liquid wastes before and after been treated by the plants in detention time of 1, 2, and 3 days. The data was analyzed by using Anova statistical test to understand the differences amongst the variation of 200, 400, and 600 gr weight of Scirpus grossus treatment, and amongst the variation of the detention times. The results showed that the average of the lowest BOD and COD concentration were in the 600 gr plants and one day detention time (i.e. 0,61 mg/l or 99,54 % reduction; and 24,75 mg/l or 92,35 % reduction). Meanwhile, the pH before and after the treatment were 5 and 8 respectively. It can be concluded that Scirpus grossus can be used to reduce BOD and COD concentration in restaurant liquid waste. Further study might be conducted for other types of the liquid waste.
Kata Kunci : mensiang, scirpus grossus, wetland, limbah rumah makan
BERBAGAI FAKTOR YANG BERPENGARUH TERHADAP
PARTISIPASI LANSIA DALAM KEGIATAN POSYANDU PLUS
DI DUSUN SORAGAN DESA NGESTIHARJO
KECAMATAN KASIHAN KABUPATEN BANTUL
Urip Widjajono, Irmanita Wiradona, RR Ratih Hardisari
Bantul Regency local government has adapted health development programs through increasing human resource quality, of which the mission is to promote community participation. One of the participation is Posyandu. Since 2004 in Yogyakarta Province, Posyandu Plus has been developed with additional service of Mitra Keluarga counselling, which has flexibel time service and is adjusted to community needs. In Bantul Regency, Soragan Village which are located in Ngestiharjo, Kasihan, is one of the pilot locations. In its im-plementation, one of Posyandu Plus’s target is elderly people who aged over 60 years. However, the attendance of them only 50 % from the total population lived in Soragan. The objectives of the study were: to understand the im-plementation of Posyandu Plus, to understand the participation rate of elderly, and to understand the factors which are influenced the participation. Path analysis was conducted using AMOSS 4.00 software. The results showed that the Posyandu Plus and its above additional counselling has been finely implemented from, by, for and with the community, and the elderly’s par-ticipation rate was quite high. It can be concluded that family condition, and knowledge were not significantly influenced the participation. On the other hand; motivation, role of community figures and services of health officers significantly influenced the participation.
Kata Kunci : partisipasi, lansia, posyandu plus
MODIFIKASI AERATOR MENJADI POMPA SAMPLING UDARA
UNTUK MEMENUHI STANDAR ABBM
DI JURUSAN KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN
POLTEKKES DEPKES YOGYAKARTA
Air sampling pump represents the most important appliance in air quality mo-nitoring. The Environmental Health Department of Polytechnic of Health, Yog-yakarta has only two units of this appliance, meanwhile, the reference learning equipments standard is ten. This problem definitely do not support the practical learning process, so that it has to be resolved. As purchasing the new ones is not an appropriate solution, a modification of aquarium air-pump (aerator) ap-pliance becoming the sampling pump is a good effort because of its cheapness and feasibility. The objective of the study was reached by the following steps: 1) modifying the aerator as the air sampling pump, 2) validating the modified air sampling pump, and 3) studying the advantages and the weaknesses of the modified air sampling pump. The results of the study indicate that the aerator can be modified as air sampling pump, and the modified pump was precise and accurate (i.e. 1,00 ± 0,06 lpm, at a speed of 1 lpm). Furthermore, the modified pump has many advantages, that is: cheap, simple, light in weight, easy to use, easy to maintain, durable, and air-flow manageable
Kata Kunci : aerator, pompa sampling udara, modifikasi