PENDAYAGUNAAN TENAGA PELOPOR MALARIA (PTM)
PADA DAERAH-DAERAH ENDEMIK MALARIA
DI PROPINSI SUMATERA BARAT
Muchsin Riviwanto, Aidil Onasis
The eradication and controlling activities on malaria mosquitos still only ad-dressing the vectors such as conducting house spraying, larviciding and ento-mologic survey. These efforts are ineffective because of lack of human factor. In sociological intervention, community involvement are needed to voluntarily help the malaria problem. Those people are called Tenaga Pelopor Malaria (TPM). The study was aimed to develop community empowerment model by forming and activating individuals in the community as TPM. The model is ex-pected to be implemented not only in research areas but also in other malaria endemic areas. The study employed quasi experiment with control group pre and post test design. The research took place at Mandeh Village in Pesisir Selatan Regency and Sijantang Village in Sawahlunto City. There were 10 TPM, each of them took care 10 households and conducting eight visitages in once a week frequency. From every visitage, the development of the house-holds were monitored. The study showed that the TPMs have been founded in West Sumatera Province as a model for other areas. In doing their activities, each TPM was equipped with pocket books and booklets as guidance Results of the FGD showed that in general, people were not fully aware about the characteristics of malaria as well as the related controlling methods. It can be concluded that the TPM intervention were significantly effective in increasing people’s knowledge and attitude (p<0.05).>0.05). The local Health Agency is advised to follow-up the program by monitoring dan controlling the TPM’s activities. It is suggested as well, that the local government pay attention by giving incentive in order to motivate the TPM to be more active.
Kata Kunci : malaria, pemberdayaan masyarakat, tenaga pelopor malaria
PEMANFAATAN PENGINDERAAN JAUH
DAN SISTEM INFORMASI GEOGRAFIS
UNTUK PEMETAAN DISTRIBUSI SPASIAL
PENYAKIT DEMAM BERDARAH DENGUE (DBD)
Nur M. Farda, Sigit Heru Murti, Putri Rizka Nursari
Nowadays, the development of remote sensing method has capability for ex-tracting data of environmental factors which are influencing the exictence of breeding places of Aedes aegypti as vector mosquito of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF). The output of remote sensing is subsequently used as input of GIS (Geographical Information System) to analyze susceptibility areas of DHF. The aim of the research was to explore the advantage of remote sensing and GIS for area susceptibility mapping on this disease based on some parameters such as: land-use, population density, river, temporary waste disposal sites, and the characteristic of Aedes aegypti prerequisite condition. Scoring is the method used in this research to analyze those parameters. The results shows that extraction land-use from IKONOS image data produced 88 % of accuracy. Furthermore, the map produced from the method shows that 35.28 % (1207,68 ha) and 25,62 % (876,99 ha) area of Depok sub-district, in Sleman regency, DIY province, has medium and high susceptibility of DHF, respectively.
Kata Kunci : Penginderaan jauh, GIS, distribusi spasial, DBD
DOSIS EFEKTIF INOCULANT CAIR UNTUK MEMPERCEPAT
WAKTU PENGOMPOSAN SAMPAH ORGANIK
Sri Puji Ganefati, Iswanto, Suparjan
Organic waste is the biggest component (75%-80%) amongst domestic waste. The waste is potential to give negative impact on public health and environ-mental health. Further utilization of organic waste is the best way to produce organic fertilizer. However, the long duration needed for the composting process (up to 2-3 motnhs) found as major obstacle that makes people hesitate to apply this method, and therefore causing unsatisfied waste handling. One of the problem solution alternatives is to add activator (i.e. inoculant) which can accelerate the composting process. Survey held in Sukunan Village, Sleman Regency, on 4 May 2007 revealed that the addition of liquid inoculant into organic waste was able to shorten the composting time only for 2 weeks, or reduced 2-10 weeks from the normal time. However, the effective dose is has not known yet, so that it was important to conduct follow-up research to understand the most accelerating dose. The results showed that the average of composting time for each dose of the liquid inoculant were: 75 cc/lt, 11,22 days; 60 cc/lt, 13,11 days; 45 cc/lt,14,56 days; 30 cc/lt, 16,22 days; and 15 cc/t, 18,11 days. The time needed for 75cc/lt was found as the quickest and was supported by the statistical analysis using anova and t test (p-value <>.
Kata Kunci : sampah organik, kompos, inoculant cair
BIAYA DAN KUALITAS PENYEHATAN LINGKUNGAN
RUMAH SAKIT UMUM DI DAERAH ISTIMEWA YOGYAKARTA
Mohamad Mirza Fauzie, Darmanto, M. Arifai
A hospital is a public facility which has highly possibilities to get nosocomial in-fection and pollution of the surrounding environmental from its daily activities. In order to avoid and to decrease those kinds of risks, a hospital is necessary to carry out environmental health programs and those activities were based on the Ministry of Health’s decision Number 1204/ Menkes/SK/X/2004. This study has used analytic descriptive research using cross sectional design. The vari-ables which were studied compare between total cost of investment cost, operational cost, maintenance cost, and administration cost. In addition, the output quantity of activities was the amount of water which was produced (m3), the amount of waste water which was treated (m3), the amount of which was annihilated (kg), and the volume of room which was sterilized (m3), while the output quality consisted of quality of laboratorial diagnostic result based on the request from every sanitation installation which is inline with the parameter request. Furthermore, unit cost was the total cost that is divided by output qu-antity.To accomplish the quality of bacteriology in water supply is not as good as the quality of its chemistry and physics and also the quality of microbiology at waste water treatment. Otherwise, to handle the quality of microbiology is easier in technology and cheaper in cost side if comparing to handle the quality of chemistry and physics. The cost of fuel in destroying the solid medical waste becomes the highest cost so it is needed an efficient fuel of burner. To ac-complish the quality of sterilization result so standart operating procedure accomplishment becomes important. The average of actual unit cost for pro-cessing healthy water is Rp 854/m3, while for recycling waste water, proces-sing of solid medical wasted, and sterilization are Rp 9.341/m3, Rp 6.957/kg, and Rp 1.650/m3 respectively. The higher the unit cost for water supply the better the quality of microbiology and physics. In waste water treatment, the higher unit cost the better the quality of bacteriology and chemistry. Otherwise for sterilization, the less sterilized room volume the higher the unit cost.
Kata Kunci : biaya satuan, kualitas, penyehatan lingkungan rumah sakit
KEMAMPUAN TANAMAN MENSIANG (Scirpus grossus)
DALAM MENURUNKAN KADAR BOD DAN COD
LIMBAH RUMAH MAKAN
Yasril, Awalia Gusti
Liquid waste yielded from food materials of restaurant is counted as organic waste which can be degradated by microorganisms becoming volatile and un-pleasant odored compound. Therefore, further processing to decrease the BOD and COD concentration is needed, for example the application of Men-siang (Scirpus grossus) plants. The experiment study was a quasi one. The collected data was a primer ones which was gained from laboratory examina-tion on the sample of the liquid wastes before and after been treated by the plants in detention time of 1, 2, and 3 days. The data was analyzed by using Anova statistical test to understand the differences amongst the variation of 200, 400, and 600 gr weight of Scirpus grossus treatment, and amongst the variation of the detention times. The results showed that the average of the lowest BOD and COD concentration were in the 600 gr plants and one day detention time (i.e. 0,61 mg/l or 99,54 % reduction; and 24,75 mg/l or 92,35 % reduction). Meanwhile, the pH before and after the treatment were 5 and 8 respectively. It can be concluded that Scirpus grossus can be used to reduce BOD and COD concentration in restaurant liquid waste. Further study might be conducted for other types of the liquid waste.
Kata Kunci : mensiang, scirpus grossus, wetland, limbah rumah makan
BERBAGAI FAKTOR YANG BERPENGARUH TERHADAP
PARTISIPASI LANSIA DALAM KEGIATAN POSYANDU PLUS
DI DUSUN SORAGAN DESA NGESTIHARJO
KECAMATAN KASIHAN KABUPATEN BANTUL
Urip Widjajono, Irmanita Wiradona, RR Ratih Hardisari
Bantul Regency local government has adapted health development programs through increasing human resource quality, of which the mission is to promote community participation. One of the participation is Posyandu. Since 2004 in Yogyakarta Province, Posyandu Plus has been developed with additional service of Mitra Keluarga counselling, which has flexibel time service and is adjusted to community needs. In Bantul Regency, Soragan Village which are located in Ngestiharjo, Kasihan, is one of the pilot locations. In its im-plementation, one of Posyandu Plus’s target is elderly people who aged over 60 years. However, the attendance of them only 50 % from the total population lived in Soragan. The objectives of the study were: to understand the im-plementation of Posyandu Plus, to understand the participation rate of elderly, and to understand the factors which are influenced the participation. Path analysis was conducted using AMOSS 4.00 software. The results showed that the Posyandu Plus and its above additional counselling has been finely implemented from, by, for and with the community, and the elderly’s par-ticipation rate was quite high. It can be concluded that family condition, and knowledge were not significantly influenced the participation. On the other hand; motivation, role of community figures and services of health officers significantly influenced the participation.
Kata Kunci : partisipasi, lansia, posyandu plus
MODIFIKASI AERATOR MENJADI POMPA SAMPLING UDARA
UNTUK MEMENUHI STANDAR ABBM
DI JURUSAN KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN
POLTEKKES DEPKES YOGYAKARTA
Air sampling pump represents the most important appliance in air quality mo-nitoring. The Environmental Health Department of Polytechnic of Health, Yog-yakarta has only two units of this appliance, meanwhile, the reference learning equipments standard is ten. This problem definitely do not support the practical learning process, so that it has to be resolved. As purchasing the new ones is not an appropriate solution, a modification of aquarium air-pump (aerator) ap-pliance becoming the sampling pump is a good effort because of its cheapness and feasibility. The objective of the study was reached by the following steps: 1) modifying the aerator as the air sampling pump, 2) validating the modified air sampling pump, and 3) studying the advantages and the weaknesses of the modified air sampling pump. The results of the study indicate that the aerator can be modified as air sampling pump, and the modified pump was precise and accurate (i.e. 1,00 ± 0,06 lpm, at a speed of 1 lpm). Furthermore, the modified pump has many advantages, that is: cheap, simple, light in weight, easy to use, easy to maintain, durable, and air-flow manageable
Kata Kunci : aerator, pompa sampling udara, modifikasi